Kantronics Skip over section links
Site Map
Digital Data * Radio Communication * GPS Tracking
Company Info |  News |  Applications |  Resources |  Order


Skip over product links

Glossary

AFSK
Audio Frequency Shift Keying. Modulating digital data onto an an rf carrier by shifting between two audio tones applied to the radio's audio input, with one audio tone representing logic zeroes, and the other tone representing logic ones.
AVL
Automatic Vehicle Location. Automatic tracking of the location of vehicles and other expensive mobile equipment, with the vehicle's location measured via a GPS receiver, and tranmitted back to a central monitoring site.
AX.25
A version of the X.25 networking protocol adapted by radio amateurs to the special requirements of radio transmission of packets. (Amateur X.25)
Bell 202
A 1200-baud modem standard, employing mark and space frequencies of 1200 and 2200 Hz, respectively. Suitable for use on VHF FM packet radio.
BER
Bit Error Rate. A measure of data link quality. Indicates what fraction of data sent over a link will be received incorrectly. Usually specified under specific (sometimes worst case) conditions. Lower numbers are better (as long as the conditions under which the BER is measured are the same).
CCITT
A communications standard-setting body, now known as the ITU.
(short for Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique)
Demodulate
To extract the encoded information from a modulated signal.
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check. A method for detecting errors in transmission or data storage. On the originating end, a number is calculated (the CRC) based on the contents of a message, and then appended to the message before transmission (or storage). Upon reception (or retrieval), the CRC is re-calculated, and compared to the previously calculated value. If the two values match, there is a high probability that the message was received correctly. If the two CRC's do not match, the message and/or CRC was damaged in transmission or storage.
Digipeater
A Digital repeater retransmits received digital radio packets after a brief delay, to allow their reception by another receiver that may be out of the range of the original transmitter of the packet. The receiver of the retransmitted packet may itself be a digipeater, allowing packets to be forwarded from node to node, greatly increasing the range of a radio network.
Elmer
Radio jargon for a more-experienced mentor who helps those who are less experienced.
Equalization
Compensation for amplitude or phase distortion present in a signal path.
FCC
The Federal Communications Commission, regulates radio and other communications in the United States.
FEC
Forward Error Correction. A method of encoding information redundantly on the transmitting end, allowing the receiving end to recover the original information even if some of the signal was received incorrectly. The tradeoff for this increased message accuracy is increased message size (and correspondingly, increased time to transmit the message).
Flex™
A paging encoding format developed by Motorola
FSK
Frequency Shift Keying. A method of encoding data onto a radio signal by shifting between two (usually close) radio frequencies, with one frequency representing a logic "1" when active, and the other frequency representing a logic "0" when active.
GPS
Global Positioning System. A satellite-based system allowing GPS receivers on earth to accurately determine their position and velocity. A byproduct of the system is an extremely accurate time reference, useful for synchronizing multiple systems.
G-TOR™
Golay-TOR. A Kantronics innovation, G-TOR is an HF communications mode using standard FSK tone pairs. It incorporates Golay forward error correction coding, full frame data interleaving for burst error tolerance, and Huffman data compression. It offers robustness combined with effective throughput up to four times that of PACTOR.
HF
High Frequency. Refers to radio frequencies in the range of 30 MHz to 300 MHz.
IC
Industry Canada, regulates radio communications in Canada.
IC
Integrated Circuit. An electronic component containing multiple devices (transistors, resistors, capacitors) integrated onto a single chip and packaged.
LSUB™
Line SUBstitution. A low-overhead Kantronics protocol retaining the simplicity and transparency of a plain RF modem, but with built-in processing to prevent noise received between data transmissions from being passed along as additional data.
Modem
MOdulator / DEModulator. A device that modulates (encodes) a (usually digital) data signal onto onto an (outgoing) carrier signal, and similarly demodulates (extracts) the data encoded on an (incoming) carrier in signal, delivering the extracted data to a local device.
Modulate
To encode information onto a signal, such as an RF carrier.
PLMR
Private Land Mobile Radio. A group of licensed radio services for use by business and industry, public safety, private land mobile paging, and radiolocation. Public safety agencies, utilities, railroads, manufacturers, and a wide variety of other businesses rely on these radio services every day for coordination of people and materials, important safety and security needs, and quick response in times of emergency. Primary PLMR bands below 800 MHz in the United States are 150-174 MHz (VHF) and 450-470 MHz (UHF). They are covered by Part 90 of the FCC Rules and Regulations More information is available here..
PAD
Packet Assembler/Disassembler. The Assembler takes digital data (from a computer or GPS, for example) and formats it into packets for transmission via a packet protocol. The Disassembler performs the reverse process, extracting data from formatted packets received.
Packet Modem
A packet modem is a modem that includes packet assembly/disassembly functionality and supports packet-based communication protocols.
POCSAG
A paging signal format developed by the UK Post Office Code Standardisation Advisory Group.
PTT
Push To Talk. Refers to a switch or control signal input to a transmitter that enables the transmitter when the user or modem wishes to transmit a signal, and keeps the transmitter disabled at other times. This allows multiple users/transmitters to share the same frequency via time sharing (taking turns "talking").
PURC™
Paging Universal Remote Control. A Motorala-developed method for controlling paging tranmitters using sequences of tones of specific amplitudes and frequencies.
RF
Radio Frequency. Usually used as an adjective to clarify which signal or portion of a circuit or signal path is being referred to, or, as a noun, radio frequency signal.
SCADA
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. SCADA systems are similar to telemetry, but include using the acquired data and equipment status to determine what actions should be taken to keep a system or process running smoothly. Commands to carry out these actions are sometimes sent out via the same radio network used to acquire the data.
Simulcasting
Transmitting the same signal simultaneously via multiple precisely synchronized transmitters. Usually used to improve the received signal quality or coverage area.
SMR
Specialized Mobile Radio. A dispatch and interconnect service for commercial (resale) use.
SSID
Secondary Station ID. An identifier appended to a callsign to indicate which subsystem within a station a message is intended for (or coming from). The callsign and SSID are usually separated by a single dash. If you think of a callsign as being similar to a street address, the SSID is similar to an apartment number appended to the street address.
TNC
Terminal Node Controller. A TNC incorporates a processor (CPU) and memory that perform the functions of a PAD, plus higher level control that manages the data flow between the PAD, an external computer or terminal, store-and-forward buffers, mailboxes, and the modem/rf link.
TNPP
Telocator Network Paging Protocol. A protocol for communicating paging requests and control information within a network of paging providers.
TUP™
Transparent Unproto Packet . A Kantronics protocol for wireless data communications. TUP shares many characteristics of AX.25 protocol, but trades off end-to-end confirmation of successful delivery for lower overhead and elimination of the need for establishing a connection before communicating with the remote end. TUP does support digipeating and filtering out of packets containing errors.
UHF
Ultra High Frequency. Refers to radio frequencies in the range of 300 MHz to 1.5 GHz.
VHF
Very High Frequency. Refers to radio frequencies in the range of 30 MHz to 300 MHz.
X.25
A set of protocols for connecting users to a public, packet-switched network. (A CCITT standard.)
Kantronics  •  14830 West 117th Street  •  Olathe, Kansas 66062
Phone (913) 839-1470  •  Fax (913) 839-8231  • 
Kantronics Home | Top of Page ©2014 Kantronics LLC